Challenge Models

Other allergen challenge models

  • Inhaled allergen challenge
  • Nasal allergen challenge
  • Segmental allergen challenge

Besides natural exposure to allergens in our challenge chambers, we have other allergen challenge methods at our disposal. Inhaled allergen challenges are used to test the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with allergic asthma and have a high predictive value.

In addition to lung function, immunological endpoints can also be monitored in this context. In particular, nasal and bronchial segmental allergen challenges facilitate the collection of sample material after challenges. However, these methods are equally effective for testing the efficacy of new types of medications.

Fraunhofer Ozone Challenge Chamber

An ozone inhalation challenge causes an influx of inflammatory cells (neutrophils) in healthy study participants. This model is excellent for testing the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatments that target the neutrophilic inflammation processes typically seen in COPD patients.


Endotoxin challenges

  • Inhaled endotoxin challenge
  • Segmental endotoxin challenge

Endotoxins such as LPS (lipopolysaccharide) induce inflammation of the airways. This model can be used in a targeted manner to test anti-inflammatory drugs.

We can induce an inflammatory response not only by means of an inhalation challenge, but also by segmentally applying endotoxin to specific parts of the lung during bronchoscopy.

Methacholine, mannitol, and particle challenges

Metacholine and mannitol are used to characterize bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Alongside the standard method with metacholine, mannitol, a challenge substance with an indirect effect, is very suitable for evaluating the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs.

Challenges with fine particulate matter are used in basic research projects to study the mechanisms involved in environmental airway inflammation and the hazard potential of airborne pollutants.


Prof. Dr. med. Jens Hohlfeld
Fraunhofer ITEM
Division Director
Phone +49 511 5350-8101
Send an e-mail

Dr. med. Dipl.-Kfm. Philipp Badorrek
Fraunhofer ITEM
Head of Department
Phone +49 511 5350-8130
send an e-mail